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Roman Forum84 photos

Description

Roman Forum (162)
Roman Forum (162)

Coordinates: 41° 53′ 33″ N, 12° 29′ 7″ E

The Roman Forum (Latin: Forum Romanum, Italian: Foro Romano) is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the centre of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum. It was for centuries the centre of Roman public life: the site of triumphal processions and elections, venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches, and nucleus of commercial affairs. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city’s great men. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting numerous sightseers. Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum. The Kingdom’s earliest shrines and temples were located on the south-eastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia (8th century BC), and the Temple of Vesta (7th century BC), as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome.

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Other archaic shrines to the north-west, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal (Shrine of Vulcan), developed into the Republic’s formal Comitium (assembly area). This is where the Senate (as well as Republican government itself) began. The Senate House, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area. Over time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia (179 BC). Some 130 years later, Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, along with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form, then served as a revitalised city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political, judicial and religious pursuits in ever greater numbers. Eventually much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures (Trajan’s Forum and the Basilica Ulpia) to the north. The reign of Constantine the Great, during which the Empire was divided into its Eastern and Western halves, saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex - the Basilica of Maxentius (312 AD). This returned the political centre to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire almost two centuries later.

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Andersen Museum8 photosAppian Way26 photosArchbasilica of Saint John Lateran155 photosAuditorium22 photosAula Ottagona48 photosBasilica San Clemente al Laterano43 photosBasilica Santa Cecilia in Trastevere29 photosBasilica Santa Maria del Popolo32 photosBasilica Santa Maria in Cosmedin15 photosBasilica Santa Maria Maggiore29 photosBaths of Caracalla32 photosCampo de’ Fiori100 photosCanova Tadolini Workshop59 photosCapitoline Hill19 photosCapitoline Museums77 photosCemetery Campo Verano124 photosCentro Agroalimentare Roma19 photosChiesa del 2000114 photosChiesa del Santo Volto di Gesu38 photosCoppede103 photosFesta della Primavera31 photosFontana dell’Acqua Paola27 photosFountain of the Goddess Rome14 photosFountain of the Tortoises21 photosGalleria Sciarra24 photosGoal - Mario Ceroli39 photosJaniculum43 photosMonumento a Vittorio Emanuele II23 photosOspedale delle Bambole42 photosPalazzo dei Tribunali24 photosPantheon (Rome)15 photosParco degli Acquedotti41 photosPiazza Colonna5 photosPiazza del Popolo24 photosPiazza della Rotonda18 photosPiazza Navona31 photosPiazza Sant’Ignazio8 photosPincian Hill4 photosPonte Milvio85 photosPonte Sant’Angelo51 photosProtestant Cemetery38 photosRoman Forum84 photosSaint Ignatius of Loyola at Campus Martius16 photosSan Pietro in Montorio - Tempietto3 photosSanti Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso17 photosSnow in Rome - February 201222 photosTheatre of Marcellus11 photosTiber23 photosTrash People111 photosTrevi Fountain19 photosValentino in Rome206 photosVatican City136 photosVia Margutta18 photosVilla Doria-Pamphili20 photosVilla Torlonia72 photos