41° 56′ 46″ N, 12° 46′ 23″ E
Tivoli, the classical Tibur, is an ancient town in Lazio, about 30 km from Rome, at the falls of the Aniene River, where it issues from the Sabine hills.
The Villa d’Este is a villa situated at Tivoli. Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is a fine example of Renaissance architecture and the Italian Renaissance garden. The Villa itself surrounds on three sides a 16th century courtyard sited on the former Benedictine cloister.
The Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana) is a large Roman archaeological complex. The villa was constructed at Tibur as a retreat from Rome for Roman Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century. Hadrian was said to dislike the palace on the Palatine Hill in Rome, leading to the construction of the retreat. During the later years of his reign, he actually governed the empire from the villa. A large court therefore lived there permanently. A postal service connected them to Rome. After Hadrian, the villa was used by his various successors. In the 16th century Cardinal Ippolito II d’Este had much of the marble and statues in Hadrian’s Villa removed to decorate his own Villa d’’Este located nearby.