Islanda194 foto

Descrizione

Klifatindur (071)
Klifatindur (071)

Iceland is a Nordic island country of Europe located in the North Atlantic Ocean. It has a population of 332,529 and an area of 103,000 km², making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population.

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Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate.

According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, Norwegians, and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls (i.e., slaves or serfs) of Gaelic origin. The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world’s oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century.

The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. Iceland thus followed Norway’s integration to that union and came under Danish rule, after Sweden’s secession from that union in 1523. Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remained a distant semi-colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence.

In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland’s struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944.

Until the 20th century, Iceland relied largely on subsistence fishing and agriculture, and was among the poorest countries in Europe. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity, and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world. In 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance, biotechnology, and manufacturing.

Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation’s Scandinavian heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Norse and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is closely related to Faroese and West Norwegian dialects.

Elenco dei siti

Breiðamerkursandur17 foto

Breiðamerkursandur (341)
BreiðamerkursandurIslanda

Coordinate: 64° 2′ 41″ N, 16° 10′ 24″ O

Breiðamerkursandur (also called Diamond Beach for the pieces of glacial ice washed up on the beach) is a sandur (a glacial outwash plain) in southeast Iceland. Sandur is the Icelandic word for sand and the whole area is mostly sand, although some… [Per saperne di più]

Cavalli islandesi4 foto

Cavalli islandesi (048)
Cavalli islandesiIslanda

Coordinate: 64° 16′ 18″ N, 20° 26′ 58″ O

The Icelandic horse is a breed of horse developed in Iceland. Although the horses are small, at times pony-sized, most registries for the Icelandic refer to it as a horse. Icelandic horses weigh between 330 and 380 kg and stand an average of 13 and… [Per saperne di più]

Dyrhólaey7 foto

Dyrhólaey (111)
DyrhólaeyIslanda

Coordinate: 63° 23′ 57″ N, 19° 7′ 39″ O

The small peninsula, or promontory, Dyrhólaey (120 m) (formerly known as “Cape Portland” by seamen) is located on the south coast of Iceland, not far from the village Vík í Mýrdal. It was formerly an island of volcanic origin, which is also known… [Per saperne di più]

Eystrahorn4 foto

Eystrahorn (091)
EystrahornIslanda

Coordinate: 64° 24′ 11″ N, 14° 32′ 29″ O

Part of the Krossanesfjall is the famous rock outcrop Eystrahorn (also called Austurhorn), on the other side of the wide bay of Lón the Vestrahorn (757 m). The Eystrahorn is also called Hvalnesfjall, because of the now abandoned farm Hvalnes at his… [Per saperne di più]

Goðafoss8 foto

Goðafoss (119)
GoðafossIslanda

Coordinate: 65° 40′ 58″ N, 17° 33′ 2″ O

The Goðafoss (“waterfall of the gods” or “waterfall of the goði”) is a waterfall in Iceland. It is located in the Bárðardalur district of Northeastern Region at the beginning of the Sprengisandur highland road. The water of the river Skjálfandafljót[Per saperne di più]

Gullfoss10 foto

Gullfoss (011)
GullfossIslanda

Coordinate: 64° 19′ 37″ N, 20° 7′ 11″ O

Gullfoss (“Golden Falls”) is a waterfall located in the canyon of Hvítá river in southwest Iceland. The wide Hvítá river rushes southward, and about a kilometre above the falls it turns sharply to the right and flows down into a wide curved… [Per saperne di più]

Hverarönd29 foto

Hverarönd (097)
HveraröndIslanda

Coordinate: 65° 38′ 29″ N, 16° 48′ 33″ O

Hverarönd, literally meaning “hot springs of the ducks”, also called by Námafjall metonymy of the name of the mountain at the foot of which it is located, is a hydrothermal site of Iceland presenting hot springs, fumaroles, mud puddles and… [Per saperne di più]

Hvítserkur7 foto

Hvítserkur (076)
HvítserkurIslanda

Coordinate: 65° 36′ 23″ N, 20° 38′ 7″ O

Hvítserkur is a 15 m high basalt stack along the eastern shore of the Vatnsnes peninsula, in northwest Iceland. The rock has two holes at the base, which give it the appearance of a dragon who is drinking. Several species of birds, such as gulls[Per saperne di più]

Jökulsárlón28 foto

Jökulsárlón (234)
JökulsárlónIslanda

Coordinate: 64° 4′ 29″ N, 16° 11′ 25″ O

Jökulsárlón, literally “glacial river lagoon”, is a large glacial lake in southeast Iceland, on the edge of Vatnajökull National Park. Situated at the head of the Breiðamerkurjökull glacier, it developed into a lake after the glacier started… [Per saperne di più]

Kirkjufell5 foto

Kirkjufell (043)
KirkjufellIslanda

Coordinate: 64° 56′ 17″ N, 23° 18′ 16″ O

Mount Kirkjufell (463 m) is located in the west of Iceland, near the town of Grundarfjörður on the western shore of the fjord Grundarfjörður in the north of the Snæfellsnes peninsula. [Per saperne di più]

Klifatindur16 foto

Klifatindur (071)
KlifatindurIslanda

Coordinate: 64° 16′ 6″ N, 14° 58′ 25″ O

The mountain Klifatindur is located in southern Iceland and is 889 m high. An important part of this mountain range is the Vestrahorn (757 m). In front of him is the pointed Brunnhorn. The Klifatindur originated in the ice age. The massif consists… [Per saperne di più]

Mývatn5 foto

Lago Mývatn (005)
MývatnIslanda

Coordinate: 65° 36′ 1″ N, 17° 0′ 2″ O

Mývatn is a shallow eutrophic lake situated in an area of active volcanism in the north of Iceland, not far from Krafla volcano. The lake and its surrounding wetlands have an exceptionally rich fauna of waterbirds, especially ducks. The lake was… [Per saperne di più]

Paesaggi Islandesi3 foto

Paesaggi Islandesi (099)
Paesaggi IslandesiIslanda

Coordinate: 64° 15′ 23″ N, 15° 35′ 45″ O

Iceland has extensive volcanic and geothermal activity. The rift associated with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which marks the division between the Eurasian Plate and North American tectonic plates, runs across Iceland from the southwest to the… [Per saperne di più]

Reynisfjara20 foto

Reynisfjara (105)
ReynisfjaraIslanda

Coordinate: 63° 24′ 10″ N, 19° 2′ 33″ O

Reynisdrangar are basalt sea stacks situated under the mountain Reynisfjall near the village Vík í Mýrdal, southern Iceland which is framed by a black sand beach. Legend says that the stacks originated when two trolls dragged a three-masted ship to… [Per saperne di più]

Skógafoss5 foto

Skógafoss (027)
SkógafossIslanda

Coordinate: 63° 31′ 52″ N, 19° 30′ 44″ O

Skógafoss is a waterfall situated on the Skógá River in the south of Iceland at the cliffs of the former coastline. After the coastline had receded seaward (it is now at a distance of about 5 km from Skógar), the former sea cliffs remained,… [Per saperne di più]

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Elenco dei paesi visitati in tutto il mondo. [Per saperne di più]

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